Einstein’s Quantum Contribution

Posted August 30, 2014 By admin

There is standard potted story about Albert Einstein and Quantum Theory. It goes something like this. Einstein is famous for his theory of relativity, but he had a lot to do with the discovery of quantum theory and in fact he actually won his Nobel Prize in 1921 for his photoelectric theory of 1905. However, as the theory developed he abandoned his work in it and came to oppose the theory, which was summed up in his quote “God does not play dice”. The quote is one of his most famous.

However, this oversimplified story fails to realistically reflect Einstein’s view on the theory and this standard bland representation fails to recognize his contribution to the Quantum revolution.

Why is it important?

For me it helps us to appreciate how important Einstein is and how he fundamentally influences the world in which we live because Quantum theory underpins our modern technology. As Margaret Wertheim says in Pythagoras’ Trousers “No theory in the history of science has been more empirically successful than quantum mechanics. On the strength of quantum mechanics, humanity has built the microchip industry, and hence the computer industry. An understanding of the quantum realm has also given us the laser, and hence fiber-optic communications. CD players, bar code readers, laser surgery, laser guided weapons, and in the future probably also optical computing.”

Einstein’s contribution to quantum theory is discussed in a new book ‘Einstein and the Quantum’, by A. Douglas Stone. In a wonderful summary of the creation of the theory he sets out how Einstein made the fundamental contributions to the conceptual pillars of Quantum theory. Those contributions were:

  • Quantization of energy
  • Force carrying particles (photons)
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Intrinsic randomness in physical processes and stimulated transitions (the basis of the laser)
  • Indistinguishability of quantum particles
  • Wave fields as probability densities

What stands out in the book is the breadth and depth of Einstein’s contributions to the Quantum theory and though it is contributions to our modern world, which is to a great degree built on the success of the theory.

In contrast to the simplified story at the beginning of the article, where Einstein is painted as the opponent of the theory, in truth his contribution to Quantum theory was deep, rich and fundamental. He did oppose its intrinsic randomness, but that crude tale should not be allowed to detract from what he achieved in the field.

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Einstein’s Questions

Posted July 13, 2014 By admin

It never ceases to amaze me how often Albert Einstein appears in matters unrelated to physics or science. It’s as though an author believes that his subject will be enhanced and his argument’s strengthened if he lends the authority of Einstein to his writing. For me it reveals just how ingrained he is our modern culture and how persuasive his intelligence is held to be.

I have recently been reading an excellent book by Warren Berger called A More Beautiful Question. The book is about the importance of questioning and how to question more effectively. In the introduction he talks about How Einstein was a vocal champion of questioning. He says Einstein was deliberate in choosing which questions to tackle and that throughout his life, Einstein saw curiosity as something “holy”.

Later in the book, Berger talks about the importance of combinational thinking: the idea of connecting existing ideas in unusual and interesting ways.

The message is clear. If it is good enough for Einstein, then it is good enough for you. It seems fair enough to me and shows how quoting Einstein is seen as a way of enhancing the authority of your ideas.  

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Let There Be Matter

Posted May 25, 2014 By admin

Physicists at Imperial College London have published a report in which they claim to have solved the problem of creating matter from light.

We are not talking about some magical machine that makes a car from light (not yet anyway), but they are talking about is combining two particles of light (photons) into an electron and its antimatter equivalent – a positron.

The process involves the use of high energy lasers fired into a tiny gold capsule (called a hohlraum), which produces light as bright as a star and then sending a stream of high energy photons into the same space, which creates around 100,000 electron-positron pairs.

Let your mind dream about where this might all end up! Light into matter, could we possibly be on the verge of processes where we can create solids from light. Where could such technology take us?

And this process is all about Einstein. Oliver Pike, the lead researcher on the study says the process is one of the most elegant demonstrations of e=mc2 – the demonstration of the relationship between matter and energy

Just look at the components of the experiment and its underpinning. Photons, lasers and the relationship between matter and energy – all of them stemming directly from Einstein’s work. Such ability to manipulate light, particles and energy could never happen without Einstein’s work.

If we are ever able to create matter from light it will be because of the work of Albert Einstein.

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Einstein Waves

Posted April 26, 2014 By admin

As speculated in the last post, Gravitational Waves are very much in the news. It has now been confirmed that researchers at the BICEP2 telescope in Antarctica have detected indirect evidence of primordial gravitational waves (ripples in space-time) as forecast by Albert Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity.
This announcement marks a big couple of years for physics: first came the Higgs-Boson and now primordial gravitational waves, both discoveries push our understanding of the universe and its beginning forward in fundamental ways. And both stem directly from Einstein and his theories and bot reveal how important Einstein is to modern science our understanding of nature.
What are gravitational waves? In his General Theory of Relativity, Einstein compared the universe’s shape to a single fabric made from space-time and speculated that gravity is caused by the curvature in space-time, with gravitational waves being like ripples in that fabric. Ripples are caused by two objects that are accelerating acting on each other. Gravitational waves have been detected before, what this new announcement is about is primordial gravitational waves. These are waves in space-time that date back to the Big Bang and the birth of the universe, during the period known as inflation.
There are many articles and information around about the announcement and it meaning. Here are some links to some interesting articles:
Primordial gravitational waves – a whole new era
What are gravitational waves
Gravitational waves discovery.
Enjoy your reading and consider the profound influence Albert Einstein continues to have on modern physics and our world.

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Whispers of the Big Bang?

Posted March 16, 2014 By admin

There are rumours that an American Astrophysics team are set to announce they have detected primordial gravitational waves, which are in essence an echo of the big bang. If correct it will be one of those big physics headlines, much like the announcement of the Higgs-boson.

The signal is rumoured to have been found by a telescope called bicep (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) at the South Pole. It scans the sky at microwave frequencies, where it picks up the fossil energy from the big bang.

What are gravitational waves? Follow the link for a full explanation, but in brief they are tiny ripples in the fabric of space/time that carry energy across space.

And what have they to do with Albert Einstein you ask? Well everything really because they are the last untested prediction of the General Theory of Relativity. To date there has not been any direct detection of them. If the rumours are correct and the team have detected them, then not only will it be further proof (if any is needed) of the correctness of GTR, but also will provide invaluable insights into the first moments of the Big Bang. It has been described as one of the Holy grails of Cosmology and would be ranked as one of the most important discoveries of our time.

Once more Albert Einstein and his predictions are in the news as his work continues to explain our universe and our understanding of it.

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